Arabic has 3 short vowels:
The vowel A – represented by a dash placed above the letter
The vowel I – represented by a dash placed below the letter
The vowel U – represented by a hook placed above the letter
There are 6 letters of the alphabet which give a rounded sound when pronounced. They have been identified in circles 1 to 6 on page 6 of the text below.
The letters in boxes 1 and 2 on page 6 below are known as the grating or guttural letters because the sounds come from the back of the throat.
Please repeat after the reader using the audio below.